Borobudur Temple Tourism, Yogyakarta

borobudur temple tourism yogyakarta

Historic tourism in Borobudur temple


Borobudur Temple is a well-known tourist destination to foreign countries, and the acclamation in Borobudur Temple is very complete. For tickets to enter the area also relatively cheap, for those of you who are not strong enough to walk to the temple, a Gandeng train has been provided which is ready to take you to Borobudur Temple.

Access to Borobudur Temple is very easy, both for private vehicle drivers and public transportation services. If you are from Yogyakarta, you can take Trans Jogja on line 2A to Jombor terminal. Get off from the Jombor bus stop you can take a bus majoring in Jombor - Borobudur. For visitors using private vehicles can directly drive a vehicle to the Magelang area, after passing through the city of Muntilan there will be a junction towards Borobudur, in the T-junction take the road to Jalan Mayor Kusen (Jalan Raya Borobudur). The road will take you right to Borobudur Temple.

History of Borobudur Temple


Borobudur Temple is a temple located in the area of ​​Borobudur, Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia. The location of the temple is approximately 100 km to the southwest of Semarang, 86 km to the west of Surakarta, and 40 km to the northwest of Yogyakarta. The temple in the form of a stupa was established by Mahayana Buddhists during the reign of Syailendra. Because in the period in the famous century of the Wangsa Syailendra which marked the construction of a large number of temples on the slopes of the mountain mostly stood typical of Hindu buildings while those scattered on the plains were typical of Buddhist buildings but there were also some typical Hindu.

Many theories explain the mention and naming of this Borobudur Temple, one of which is the naming of Borobudur, stating that this name probably originates from the word Sambharabhudhara, which means "mountain" (bhudara) where the terraces are located on the slopes.

In addition, said Borobudur itself based on the first written evidence written by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Governor General of the United Kingdom on Java, who gave the name of this temple. The only oldest document that shows the existence of this temple is the Nagarakretagama book, written by Mpu Prapanca in 1365. It is written that this temple is used as a place of Buddhist meditation. The meaning of the name Borobudur is "monastery in the hills", which comes from the words "bara" (temple or monastery) and "beduhur" (hills or high places) in Sanskrit. Therefore, according to the meaning of the name Borobudur, this place has long been used as a place of worship for Buddhists.

According to historian J.G. de Casparis argues that Borobudur is a place of worship. Based on the Karangtengah and Kahulunan inscriptions, Casparis estimates that the founder of Borobudur was the king of Mataram from the Syailendra wangsa named Samaratungga, who could only be completed during his daughter, Ratu Pramudawardhani in power, the construction of the temple by Gunadharma was estimated to take half a century.

Still in the middle of the inscriptions mentioned that the Borobudur Temple area is a conferment of the land of Sima, which is a tax-free land by Cīrī Kahulunan (Pramudawardhani) to maintain Kamūlān called Bhūmisambhāra. The term Kamūlān itself comes from the original word which means the place of origin, the sacred building to glorify the ancestors, possibly the ancestors of the Sailendra dynasty. So that Casparis estimates that Bhūmi Sambhāra Bhudhāra in Sanskrit which means "Hill of the set of ten levels of bodhisattva virtue", is the real name of Borobudur.

Borobudur Temple which was designed (in architecture) by Gunadharma, consists of six square-shaped terraces above which there are three circular courtyards, on its walls decorated with 2,672 relief panels and originally there are 504 Buddha statues. Borobudur has the most complete collection of Buddhist reliefs in the world. The largest main stupa lies in the middle and crowns the building, surrounded by three circular rows of 72 hollow stupas in which a buddha statue is sitting cross-legged in a perfect lotus position with the mudra (hand gesture) Dharmachakra mudra (turning the dharma wheel).

Dimensionally, the width of the building is 123 Meter Borobudur Temple, the length of the building is 123 Meter Borobudur Temple, at an angle that turns 113 Meters, and the height of the building is Borobudur Temple 30.5 Meters. The Borobudur Temple building was built using Andhesite rocks with interlocking systems in the construction of buildings and floors in the Borobudur Temple. andhesite rocks for the building of this temple come from the Elo River and the Progo River which are carved and assembled into giant puzzles that cover a small hill from the Borobudur Temple.

The andhesite rocks used for the construction of the Borobudur Temple are as many as 55,000 M3, on the original feet covered with Adhesit stones as much as 12,750 M3 as the corridor of the steps. As many as 2 million stone blocks are arranged which form the Borobudur Temple. This temple has a basic structure of punden berundak, with six square platforms, three circular circular platforms and a main stupa as a peak. Also scattered in all the court several stupas.

The ten courts owned by Borobudur clearly illustrate the philosophy of the Mahayana school. Like a book, Borobudur describes ten levels of Bodhisattva that must be passed to achieve perfection to become a Buddha carved on the walls of this Borobudur Temple. To follow the flow of stories carved on the temple walls, visitors must walk clockwise around the temple, known as pradaksina. This enters through the east entrance, runs clockwise to the position where the temple is always on the right side, until it reaches the foot of the eastern staircase and increases to the next level. This is done repeatedly until all levels pass and reach above the temple forming the main stupa.

Philosophical Value of Borobudur


Reliefs carved on the temple walls are divided into four main stories, namely the Karmawibhangga story, Lalita Wistara, Jataka and Awadana, and Gandawyuha.

Karmawibhangga


karmawibhangga relief borobudur

In accordance with the symbolic meaning at the foot of the temple, the reliefs that adorn the veiled wall of the batur illustrate the law of karma. The rows of reliefs are not serial (serial) stories, but in each frame illustrates a story that has a causal correlation. The relief not only illustrates the despicable actions of humans accompanied by the punishment they will get, but also the good deeds of humans and rewards. Overall it is a depiction of human life in a circle of birth - life - death (samsara) that never ends, and by that chain Buddhism will be ended to reach perfection.

Lalita Wistara


relief lalitawistara, borobudur temple

It is a depiction of the Buddha's history in a row of reliefs (but not a complete history) which began from the descent of the Buddha from Tusita heaven, and ended with the first lecture in Deer Park near the city of Banaras. These reliefs lined up from the stairs on the south side, after exceeding a row of reliefs of 27 frames starting from the east side stairs. The 27 frames depict busyness, both in heaven and in the world, in preparation to welcome the Bodhisattva's last incarnation as a prospective Buddha. The relief depicts the birth of the Buddha in this arcapada as Prince Siddhartha, son of King Suddhodana and Empress Maya of the Land of Kapilawastu. The reliefs amount to 120 frames, which end with the first discourse, which is symbolically expressed as the Dharma Wheel Rotation, the Buddha's teaching is called dharma which also means "law", while dharma is symbolized as a wheel.

Jataka and Awadana


Jataka is a story about the Buddha before being born as Prince Siddharta. Its contents are a prominent subject of good deeds, which distinguishes the Bodhisattva from any other creature. Indeed, the collection of services / good deeds is a stage of preparation in an effort to reach the level of Buddhahood.

Whereas Awadana, is basically almost the same as the Jataka, but the culprit is not the Bodhisattva, but other people and the story is collected in the book Diwyawadana which means noble deeds, and the Awadanasataka or one hundred Awadana stories. In the reliefs of the Borobudur jataka and awadana temples, they are treated equally, meaning both are in the same row without being distinguished.

Gandawyuha


A row of reliefs adorning the walls of the second aisle, is the story of Sudhana who ventured tirelessly in an effort to seek the Highest Knowledge of Sudhana's True Truth. Its depiction in 460 frames is based on the Mahayana Buddhist scripture entitled Gandawyuha, and for its closing part based on another book, namely Bhadracari.

In addition to telling about the journey of the Buddha's life and its teachings, Alos relief records a superior and strong increase in Javanese society, and that can be seen in the 10 reliefs of existing ships.

Borobudur not only has a very high artistic value, a great work as proof of human civilization in the past is also loaded with philosophical values. Enhancing the concept of Mandala which symbolizes the cosmology of the universe in Buddhism, this magnificent building is divided into three levels, namely the world of desire or lust (Kamadhatu), the world of forms (Rupadhatu) and the world without form (Arupadhatu).

Borobudur's feet symbolize Kamadhatu, which is the world that is still dominated by kama or "low lust". in this section most of it is covered by piles of stones which are thought to be made to strengthen the construction of the temple. In the closed section of this additional structure there are 120 Karmawibhangga story panels. A small portion of the additional structure is set aside so that people can still see relief in this section.

Four floors (whose floors are square) with walled berries on top are called Rupadhatu. outline. Rupadhatu is a world that has been able to free itself from lust, but is still bound by form and form. This level symbolizes the natural between that, between the underworld and the upper realm. In this part of Rupadhatu Buddha statues are found in recesses of walls above the hallway.

On the fifth floor to the seventh wall is not flexible (Floor plan in the form of a circle). This level is called Arupadhatu which means not in the form or intangible. This level symbolizes the upper realm, where humans are free of all desires and bonds of form and form, but have not reached nirvana. Buddha statues are placed inside stupas that are covered with holes like in a cage.

At the highest level which describes the absence of being symbolized as the largest and highest stupa. The stupa is depicted innocently without holes.

Buddha Statue and Stupa


Buddha statue in niches at the Rupadhatu level, arranged based on lines on the outer side of the balustrade. The amount decreases on the upper side. the first row of balustrades (first floor) consists of 104 niches and Buddha statues, on the second row (second floor) there are 104 niches and Buddha statues, the third floor is 88 Buddha statues, fourth floor 72 Buddha statues, and fifth row 64 statues Buddha. In total there are 432 Buddha statues at the Rupadhatu level. In the Arupadhatu section (three circular courts), the Buddha statue is placed in hollow stupas. in the first circular court there are 32 stupas, the second court is 24 stupas, and the third court has 16 stupas, all of which are 72 stupas. so that the total total of the Buddhist statues in Borobudur is 504 statues.

Indeed, if seen at a glance all these Buddha statues look similar, but there are subtle differences such as the mudra or the position of the hand. there are five groups of mudras, the five mudras are Bhumispara Mudra, Wara Mudra, Dhayana Mudra, Abhaya Mudra, Dharma Cakra Mudra. Which means North, East, South, West, and Central directions, all based on the five main directions of the compass according to Mahayana teachings.

At Borobudur Temple there are many stupas which are divided into several groups, namely the main Stupa, the hollow Stupa and the Small Stupa. The main stupa is the crown of the entire monument to the building of Borobudur Temple, larger in size than the other stupas and located in the middle of the uppermost center line of the main Stupa + 9.90 M the highest peak is called the pinakel / Yasti Cikkara, located above Padmaganda and also located on the Harmika line.

Each Buddha Statue in the Arupadhatu section has a stupa, although there are also a number of Buddha statues that do not have stupas, because they are affected by previous damage. And the stupa covering the Buddha statue is hollow. In the Borobudur Temple there are 72 hollow stupas in total. the stupas are at the level of Arupadhatu, on the Terrace I there are 32 Stupas, Terrace II there are 24 Stupas, Terrace III there are 16 Stupas.

Whereas the small Stupa has almost the same shape as the other stupas, but the difference is that the size is smaller than the other stupas, as if the decoration of the Borobudur Temple has the existence of a niche in step II until step V while in step I in the form of Keben and some in the form of small Stupa, there are 14 small stupas.

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